In this textbook chapter, we examined the slave trade from multiple perspectives in an effort to mitigate the danger of a single story.

We tried to understand others’ motivations and move beyond initial assumptions. This helped us counteract our culture’s tendency to simplify and stereotype groups of people. We hope that in the future, our readers follow our lead and analyze history from different points of view. This method can be used not only in analyzing the past, but also in interpreting the present to approach a more truthful narrative.


Works Cited

 

slave perspectives and experiences

Aljoe, Nicole N. “Caribbean Slave Narratives: Creole in Form and Genre.” Anthurium: A Caribbean Studies Journal 2.1 (2004). (link)

“Africa Enslaved: A Curriculum Unit on Comparative Slave Systems for Grades 9-12.” University of Texas at Austin. Last modified March 2006. (link)

Equiano, Olaudah. “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African, Written by Himself.” Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina. (link)

“Estimates.” The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. Emory University, 2013. (link)

Grimes, William. “William Grimes, 1784-1865. Life of William Grimes, the Runaway Slave. Written by Himself.” Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina. Accessed October 4, 2016. (link)

Khan, Andrew and Jamelle Bouie. “The Atlantic Slave Trade in Two Minutes.” Slate, June 2015. (link)

Mintz, S. and S. McNeil. “The Middle Passage.” Digital History. Accessed October 2016. (link)

“Resistance on the Plantations.” The Abolition Project. East of England Broadband Network and MLA East of England, 2009. Accessed October 4, 2016. (link

Rediker, Marcus. The Slave Ship: A Human History. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.

Smith, Venture. “Venture Smith, 1729?-1805. A Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa: But Resident above Sixty Years in the United States of America. Related by Himself.” Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina. Accessed October 4, 2016. (link)

Warner, Ashton. “Negro Slavery Described by a Negro: Being the Narrative of Ashton Warner, a Native of St. Vincent's.” Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina. (link)

 

european PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES

Alweis, Frank. New Dimensions of World History. New York: American Book Company, 1968.

“Arguments and Justifications.” The Abolition Project. East of England Broadband Network and MLA East of England, 2009. Accessed October 1, 2016. (link)

“British Involvement in the Transatlantic Slave Trade.” The Abolition Project. East of England Broadband Network and MLA East of England, 2009. (link)

Equiano, Olaudah. “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, Or Gustavus Vassa, The African, Written by Himself.” Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina. (link)

“European Christianity and Slavery.” African Passages, Lowcountry Adaptations. Lowcountry Digital History Initiative, 2013. Accessed October 1, 2016. (link)

“Europe Before Transatlantic Slavery.” Understanding Slavery Initiative, 2011. (link)

“Extracts from John Newton's Journal.” International Slavery Museum. National Museums Liverpool. (link)

Olusoga, David. “The history of British slave ownership has been buried: now its scale can be revealed.” The Guardian, July 11, 2015. (link)

Rediker, Marcus. The Slave Ship: A Human History. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.

“Slavery before the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade.” African Passages, Lowcountry Adaptations. Lowcountry Digital History Initiative, 2013. (link)

“The Proslavery Argument.” Boundless U.S. History. Boundless, September 20, 2016. Accessed October 1, 2016. (link)

 

african PERSPECTIVES AND EXPERIENCES

Coates, Ta-Nehisi. “The Case for Reparations.” The Atlantic, June 2014. (link)

“GDP per capita: overview per country.” World Bank. Accessed October 2016. (link)

“Gross Domestic Product” in “Global Imbalances, Crisis, and the Lack of Global Governance.” Development and Globalization Facts and Figures. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, 2012. (link)

Khaminwa, Muhonjia. “Clothing in Africa.” AfricaStyles.com. Accessed October 2, 2016. (link)

Nunn, Nathan. “The Historical Origins of Africa’s Underdevelopment.” VoxEU. The Centre for Economic Policy Research, December 8, 2007. (link)

Perry, Felton E. “Kidnapping: An Underreported Aspect of African Agency During the Slave Trade Era (1440-1886).” Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies 35.2 (2009). (link)

“Precolonial African Economies.” Living While Black: Themes in African American Thought and Experience. Pennsylvania State University. Accessed October 2, 2016. (link)

Rediker, Marcus. The Slave Ship: A Human History. New York: Penguin Group, 2007.

Ross, Will. “Slavery’s long effects on Africa.” BBC News: Ghana, March 29, 2007. (link)

“Songhai, African Empire, 15th-16th Century.” South African History Online. Last modified November 14, 2011. (link)

“The Portuguese in Africa, 1415-1600.” Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Accessed October 2, 2016. (link)

 

SLAVE TRADE AND HUMAN RIGHTS

“Abolitionism.” The Abolition of The Slave Trade. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, 2012. Accessed October 1, 2016. (link)

“About Slavery: Slavery Today.” Free the Slaves. Accessed October 2016. (link)

“Arguments and Justifications.” The Abolition Project. East of England Broadband Network and MLA East of England, 2009. Accessed October 6, 2016. (link)

“Case Study 4: Jamaica (1831)–The Rebellion.” The Abolition Project. East of England Broadband Network and MLA East of England, 2009. Accessed October 8, 2016. (link)

“Antislavery Directory.” End Slavery Now. Accessed October 11, 2016. (link)

“Estimates.” The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. Emory University, 2013. (link)

“Introduction to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” Facing History and Ourselves. Accessed October 8, 2016. (link)

Jesionka, Natalie. “The Fight for Freedom: 7 Organizations Combatting Human Trafficking.The Muse, 2012. Accessed October 11, 2016. (link)

Martinez, Jenny S. The Slave Trade and the Origins of International Human Rights Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012.

“More than Drinks for Sale: Exposing Sex Trafficking in Cantinas and Bars in the U.S.” Polaris Project, September 2016. (link)

“Slave Trade: the African Connection, ca 1788.” EyeWitness to History. Ibis Communications, Inc., 2007. Accessed October 8, 2016. (link)

“Suppressing the Trade.” The Abolition Project. East of England Broadband Network and MLA East of England, 2009. Accessed October 8, 2016. (link

“Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” United Nations, December 10, 2948. Accessed October 8, 2016. (link)

“Where We Work: Ghana” Free the Slaves. Accessed October 2016. (link)

“11 Facts About Human Trafficking.” DoSomething.org. Accessed October 1, 2016. (link)